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    Linguistic disciplines: A brief Review

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    Turky

    Posts: 6
    Join date: 2009-12-16

    Linguistic disciplines: A brief Review

    Post  Turky on Wed Feb 03, 2010 1:19 am

    Linguistic disciplines: A brief Review

    Since linguistics analysis is a valuable topic in developing language learning, in the following, the branches of linguistics will be briefly reviewd. This is only a very rough summary and I hope that I can go further on each branch separately.

    • Historical Linguistics:
    This discipline is occupied with the examination of the historical development of languages. But apart from this diachronic analysis, it also deals with the synchronic analysis of certain states of language.

    • Language acquisition and communication:
    How do we learn our language? How do the processes of language comprehension and production work? This discipline gives answers to these questions. Also, it takes a look at the role of memory in language and how it is used once we are able to talk. Strictly speaking, it is a branch of psycholinguistics, a discipline that emerged from the interdisciplinary collaboration of linguistics and psychology in the 1950's. Research in language acquisition has meanwhile become a strong domain of its own.

    • Phonetics:
    The subjects of phonetics are the articulation, transport, and receival of speech sounds. Thus, there are three corresponding branches of phonetics: articulatory, acoustic, and auditory phonetics. In contrast to phonology, phonetics deals with the physical aspect of speech sounds.

    • Phonology:
    Phonology is the study of the distinctive sounds of a language, the so-called phonemes. Phonology examines the functions of sounds within a language.

    • Morphology:
    Morphemes are the smallest meaningful elements of a language. Morphology is the study of these meaning units. Not all words or even all syllables are necessarily meaning units. Morphology employs discovery procedures to find out what words or syllables are morphemes.

    • Syntax:
    Syntax is the study of sentence structure; it is a part of grammar in the broad sense. There are several ways of defining and examining sentences. We will have a look at various grammars.

    • Semiotics:
    Semiotics is the study of signs in communication processes in general. It concerns itself with the analysis of both linguistic and non-linguistic signs as communicative devices and with their systems.

    • Semantics:
    Linguistic semantics examines the meaning of linguistic signs and strings of signs.

    • Pragmatics:
    Pragmatics is the study of the use of signs and the relationship between signs and their users.

    • Sociolinguistics:
    This is the study of the interaction of language and social organization. There are several models that determine the variation of language in social contexts both on an individual as well as on a social-group scale. Sociolinguistics is also concerned with national language policies.

    • Computer linguistics (also: computational linguistics)
    This domain is an interdisciplinary area of research between linguistics and information science. There are two main branches. First, computer linguists simulate grammars by implementing language structures into computer programs. In this context, the term computer metaphor became famous. It refers to the notion that the human brain can be simulated by a computer. Second, computer linguists use the computer as a tool for the analysis of language. For instance, large corpuses of text are processed with the aid of especially designed software.

    R. Ellis(1994)Second Language Aquisition. Oxford Press

    R Wardhaugh(1972) Introduction to linguistics. Oxford Press

    www.qut.edu.au

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